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What is called arenas of social power struggles, but also as their very for is a multi-scalar analysis that takes into account objects insofar as they are challenged and unsettled in the the complex ways in which existing interscalar course of socio-political struggles and conflicts. For scale theorists, it is a question of Precisely because such interscalar arrangements how change in any one territorial unit is affected by have an impact on social relations of power, they change at other geographic scales.

The existence of a themselves become the target of struggles designed vertical hierarchy of scales from the body to the globe to challenge those relations.

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Scale theorists have argued, however, that these are Scale theorists have also debated the relative not necessary relations but artefacts of how scales are weight given to structure versus agency. Brenner constituted under certain conditions. Emphasizing , Jessop and Collinge have that all scales are socially constituted in relation to one tended to focus on the structural determinants of another, scale theorists have sought to conceptualize rescaling, whereas others, like Herod , Miller how scales come into existence and articulate with one another and how events at a particular scale are shaped and Kurtz , have concentrated on social by their relationships with different scales.

While they begin their critique by Those concerned with the politics of regulation and acknowledging the contributions of Smith, Swyn- governance associated with globalisation are right to note gedouw, Brenner, Howitt and others, they then the very real and felt contest of jurisdiction and control proceed to critique by caricature, drawing up two between local, national and global state and non-state organisations.

They are right to stress that globalisation sets of binary oppositions which scale theorists are. The treatment here bears very little relationship forms of economic and political regionalism, experiments to scale as it appears in the works previously cited to regulate a new global regime of capital accumulation, and merits no further comment. All of these aspects do represent that, pre-configured accounts of social life that hierarchize a politics mobilised around redrawn institutional boundaries spaces of economy and culture, structure and agency, and fixities, including scalar ones.

This is, in fact, a to ignore inequalities within them, an important core premise of the political economy of scale point to which we will return. Again, Networks. These Herod and Masson forthcoming. Conversely, territorially constituted multiplicity of hierarchies.

In other words, a multiplicity political world in which social movements have to of differently structured, tangled scalar hierarchies operate. Thus, vanish today in our academic theories, then so too for instance, continental trade agreements vanish most of the targets of our political critique. The proof of the pudding, however, is in the eating.

In hierarchies as these concern an important aspect of other words, dealing with the world as it is does contemporary social reproduction — public support not rule out thinking about the way the world for non-parental child care arrangements. They reject any conception of hierarchy, state restructuring and rescaling tends to focus on even while they acknowledge in passing the validity the impact of neo-liberalism. More collective agents made their choices.

Despite the lack of provincial support, Child care arrangements form an important com- both cities have worked to lay the foundations ponent of welfare state redesign in many, if not all, for an affordable, high-quality child care system, OECD countries. The Federal policies have left an imprint on child care extent, form and quality of provision are strongly provision across the country.


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Initially that impact affected by national — and in federal states espe- was confined to Toronto and Montreal, as the cially provincial — regulatory and funding regimes. The financing and regulation of child care level. In this respect, it reinforced model of child care provision.

This is visible at other programmes that sought to achieve equity at the municipal scale — Montreal is able to boast the the pan-Canadian scale. CAP funds did not mark availability of spaces for 50 per cent of preschool the start of a truly national child care programme, children and for 40 per cent of school-age children, however. It entailed no obligation on the provinces in marked contrast to Vancouver It did provide of revenue base required to ensure the provision some broad regulations should a province decide of quality child care for all who want and need it.

It also left to the provinces determination of The availability of local resources, the existence of eligibility rules and levels of subsidy. It was also in this period care plan. Yet these which saw federal funds supporting the establish- initiatives were followed by a succession of others ment and operation of municipally-run day nurseries. Thus the Early Child province to pass the Day Nursery Act , which Development initiative included child care established the then-optional provincial—municipal as one of four areas where the provinces could spend cost sharing arrangement that has lasted to this day federal money.

The DNA marked the first provincial Agreement on Early Childhood Learning and Care initiative to regulate child care in Canada and it focused directly on pre-school child care, with remained the only provincial legislation for several the provinces left to select from a broad menu of decades. As part of the broader trend toward the options, including how to fund — demand-side professionalization of social services, the DNA measures like information or subsidies versus invest- established high standards for the province — though ment on the supply-side such as operating grants, Toronto set and maintained even higher standards.

With While flawed, these agreements might have made a provincial support, 12 of the 18 municipal centres real difference in the level and quality of provision established during the war were reopened, but only across the country. First, the on these liberal welfare principles. In the s, federal government has never deviated from a however, a new policy began to take shape in Toronto liberal policy path and this liberal bias has, until that began to break with the liberal orientation recently, been reflected in provincial policies.

In many provinces, control this process, nor the politics attending these. Of our three cities, only Toronto advocates, city officials and municipal councillors is located in a province Ontario which left a forged a network of support behind a vision of quality greater or lesser role for municipalities. The other child care as a citizen right, provided in public or two — Vancouver, British Columbia and Montreal, non-profit auspices by child care providers receiving Quebec — are in provinces that opted for the more fair wages. Toronto In the mids, it looked as if this model would not only offered decent wages and conditions to those get much needed financial support from higher working in municipal centres.

It also pioneered scales, but when the federal Conservative govern- the development of a wage enhancement policy ment did not pass its Child Care Act,12 the province designed to provide fair wages without sacrificing curtailed its spending plans. The local network of affordability. Its financial agenda. Toronto had planned to add Toronto Task Force on Services to Young Children new spaces, with one-third of these targeted at poorer, and Families. This no doubt in part reflects the under-serviced communities. As Hamel et al. The city has no direct say in these issues such as transportation, the tax burden, recreation negotiations.


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To be sure, as essential elements for generating growth and for unlike other municipalities, since Vancouver transnational business. Hamel et al. What makes vision. As a result, Toronto has the largest child the Vancouver story so interesting therefore is that care system in Canada outside Quebec. To achieve the city did come to play a very active role despite this, the municipality has worked with local school this.

Its standards local resources can be mobilized to increase the consistently exceed provincial guidelines — standards room for manoeuvre. Most the need for, and possibility of, developing a child recently, the city developed a set of operating care policy yet needs do not speak for themselves.

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Local policy and policies with collective rather than selective benefits have planning powers have been deployed in the interests maintained a strong presence in governing agendas. In practice, this has meant accommodating the with the demands of community based non-government profit-seeking imperatives of capital.

Like their Toronto counterparts, they One example is the planning exercise designed were able to break with the liberal model dominant to provide a policy framework for the central area, at the provincial and national scales. Although it had begun to license child In the context of these planning debates, three care in the s, many providers remained outside important breakthroughs occurred. The any funding, and even then it was slow to start.

This would have jurisdiction has long remained divided among meant little however without the second break- provincial ministries McDonell , While this helped administrative support and advocacy.

Hierarchies

As Hertzman found, planning processes in return for large-scale projects there is a ten-fold difference in neighbourhood and development certainty. Through the amenity bonuses, government, this will be difficult to do. This has not always been the case. In care infrastructure.

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Finally, following the adoption fact, although day care centres in Montreal received of the new child care plan,21 the city, the Vancouver federal funding during the war, the conservative School Board and the Parks Board signed a child care Union National provincial government was not protocol which established a framework for the prepared to fund them when the war ended and three to work together to build a comprehensive there was little local opposition to this.

For the most range of childhood education and care services, part, support was limited to the small working with equal access across the city. Despite the aged in the plan. The impact of its policies is emergence of a strong Quebec feminist movement visible in the high percentage of spaces — In the s and This generated the need for child care and the grammes like Opportunities for Youth and the Local opportunity to build it.

This coincided with the Initiative Projects. Through these, over 30 centres appearance of reform-oriented parties ready to had been established in Montreal by , mainly take a pro-active stance. Child care activists were in poorer, working class areas. Despite considerable in decision-making in non-profit, community-based effort, levels of coverage — 11 per cent of 0—12 year centres and organization at the sub-municipal scale. That model was long in the making, however.

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Reynolds number trend of hierarchies and scale interactions in turbulent boundary layers.

Moreover, reliance on the community contributions The Province only began to draw on CAP funds for and development cost levy instruments may have child care in As it chose to make subsidies exacerbated a problem common to many child care available to low income parents and the eligibility systems where demand clearly outpaces supply — ceiling was low , not to centres, this did little to concentration of spaces in the new developments establish a viable child care infrastructure. Thus Japel when child care got it own Office de Services de et al.

As Desjardins argues, the upper class families were more likely to have a space, new structure was given a wide mandate: and in better quality settings, than those attended by children from working class families. The latter Apart from ensuring that quality child care services are are often forced to rely on inferior for-profit centres, available, it also plans the implementation of services lower quality family day care or unlicensed care.

All these difficulty of establishing good quality family child tasks must be accomplished while maintaining close care in poor neighbourhoods.